Valvular Disease

Pericardial Disease

Myocardial Disease

Congenital Disease


Evaluation of the Left Atrium

Common Causes of Left Atrial Enlargement

Echocardiographic Views

Left Atrial Dimensions

Normal Left Atrial Parameters : Left atrial dimensions:

Important to Note

The modified parasternal short-axis view of the aortic valve is used to visualize the left atrial appendage. To obtain this view, the transducer is first oriented for the standard parasternal short-axis view at the aortic valve level. The plane of the beam is then tilted superiorly with lateral angulation of the transducer, so that the pulmonary and aortic valves, but not the tricuspid, are imaged. Positioning the transducer in a high intercostal space is sometimes helpful for optimal imaging of the left atrial appendage.



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